renal calculus

I’m also back with my usual time of uploading file as my fellow MT though with healed incision from ureterolithotomy tried working today but tolerating long hours of sitting and sudden movements which might produce pain and discomfort.

Ureterolithotomy refers to the open surgical removal of a stone from the ureter. In 2003, she was diagnosed with a small stone lodged in her ureter.  So after six years, she decided to have it surgically removed because it was blocking the urine passage.  Good news was that nephrectomy was not performed as the nehprologist found out her right kidney could still be recovered.

Stones can be as small as a grain of sand, as large as a pearl, and sometimes even larger. They can be composed of a number of materials. Here are four examples:

  • Calcium oxalate – this is the most common type of stone. It is formed from a combination of two substances that are normally contained in the diet: calcium and oxalate.
  • Uric acid – this type of stone is formed as a result of having too much uric acid (a breakdown product of protein) in the urine.
  • Struvite – these stones form in the presence of chronic urinary tract infections. They contain several different minerals and can grow to enormous size, even filling the urinary system in a branched form called “staghorn calculi (stones).”
  • Cystine – this stone is the rarest, and forms only in people with a specific hereditary disorder

Risk Factors for Forming Kidney Stones

Anyone can get kidney stones, but some factors that may increase a person’s risk of developing a stone include:

  • Heredity – About 25% of people who form stones have a close relative (such as a parent or sibling) who has also had kidney stones.
  • Insufficient fluid intake – This causes the urine to be more concentrated, so that stone-forming components such as calcium are more likely to “precipitate,” or to form the tiny crystals that are the beginnings of a stone.
  • Dietary factors – Intake of certain foods results in too much of certain stone-forming components in the urine. In such people, for instance, eating too much oxalate may increase the risk of oxalate stones, or eating too much protein may contribute to the formation of uric acid stones. Calcium or vitamin D supplements, when taken in large amounts, may also increase the risk of stone formation.
  • Bowel disease – Intestinal disease such as Crohn”s disease or “short bowel syndrome” due to gastric bypass surgery may increase the risk of forming calcium oxalate stones.
  • Vitamin D and calcium supplements – Although these are OTC meds discuss with your doctor before taking these or any nutrition supplement.


In order to reduce the chance of recurrence of kidney stones, the following may be useful:

High fluid intake – Kidney stones form when the concentration of certain substances (such as calcium) in the urine reaches a critical level. Therefore, it is wise to keep urine dilute, in order to keep the concentrations of stone components as low as possible. A rough guideline is for a patient to drink approximately 8 glasses (2 quarts) a day of water and other fluids, aiming for a urine output of approximately 2 quarts per day.

Dietary modification – A 24-hour urine collection may reveal that the urine contains too much or too little of certain substances that make kidney stone formation more likely. If abnormalities are detected, the diet can be changed to reduce the likelihood of stone formation. Listed below are soem dietary modifications for stone prevention:

Oxalate (high) – If your urine contains too much oxalate, your dietary oxalate intake can be reduced. Foods high in oxalate include: rhubarb, nuts, chocolate, and tea.

Calcium (high) – If your urine contains too much calcium, the amount may be reduced by a medication called a thiazide diuretic. However, a high amount of urinary calcium may also be a sign of one of several underlying conditions (such as renal tubular acidosis or hyperparathyroidism), which will require further evaluation and treatment.

Uric acid (high) – If your urine contains too much uric acid, your protein intake can be decreased and/or a medication called allopurinol can be given to reduce the production of uric acid.

Citrate (low) – If your urine contains too little citrate, which actually inhibits stones from forming, citrate may be given in tablet form to help prevent stone formation.

Sodium (high) – If your urine contains too much sodium, which tends to promote more calcium in the urine, dietary sodium restriction may be advised to reduce the likelihood of forming calcium-containing stones.

  • Some fruits juices, such as orange, blackcurrant, and cranberry, may be useful for lowering the risk factors for specific types of stones. Orange juice may help prevent calcium oxalate stone formation, black currant may help prevent uric acid stones, and cranberry may help with UTI-caused stones.
  • Avoidance of cola beverages.
  • Avoiding large doses of vitamin.

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